1, 2, 3

ACC

AG

ANA

ART

BEN

bec_of

C

CAUS

CNTG

COM

CONT

CQ

DEM


Abbreviations

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Grammatical categories, etc. (adapted from Leipzig Glossing Rules and Kieviet 2017: XV-XVI)

first, second, third person

accusative (i)

agentive (e)

general anaphor (ira)

article (te)

benefactive (mo/ma)

because of ('o)

consonant

causative (haka)

contiguous (ka)

comitative (ko)

continuous (/'ana)

content question ()

demonstrative


DIST

DUB

EMPH

EX(CL)

EXH   

FUT

HORT

ID(ENT)

IMM

IMP

IN(CL)

INS

INT(ENS)

IPFV


IRR

LOC

MED

NEG

NMLZ

NTR

NUM

O

PAST

PFV

PL

PND

POSS

PQ


distal (far from speaker) (era)

dubitative (ho)

emphatic ()

exclusive

exhortative (e)   

future

hortative (ki)

identity (/'ana)

immediate ('i)

imperative (ka)

inclusive

instrumental (hai)

intensifier ()

imperfective (e)

irrealis (ana)

locative; locational

medial distance (ena)

negation (ta'e)

normalizer ((V)nga)

neutral aspect (he)

numeral marker (e)

object

past

perfective (i)

plural (ŋā)

postnominal demonstrative (nei, ena, era)

possessive

polar question (hoki)


Languages

CE

EUV

FUT

HAW

LUA

MAE

MAG  

MAN

MAO

MAR

MKI

MOR

Central-Eastern Polynesian (reconstructed)

East Uvean (Wallis Island – Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna) (French collectivité d'outre-mer))

Futunan (Futuna – Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna (French collectivité d'outre-mer))

Hawaiian (State of Hawaii – United States of America)

Luangiua (Ontong Java Atoll – Solomon Islands)

Emae (Shepherds Islands – Republic of Vanuatu)

Mangaian (Mangaia – Cook Islands)

Mangarevan (Mangareva – Gambier Islands – French Polynesia)

Maori (New Zealand)  

Marquesan  (Marquesas Islands – French Polynesia)   

Manihiki-Rakahanga (Manihiki, Rakahanga – Cook Islands)

Moriori (Chatham Islands – New Zealand)

predicate marker (he)

perfect (ko/ku)

prominence marker (ko)

proper article (a)

proximal (near speaker) (nei)

postverbal demonstrative (nei, ena, era)

postverbal particle (ai)

quantifier

reduplication

subject

singular

subsequent ('ai)

verb; vowel

vocative (e)



PRED

PRF

PROM

PROP

PROX

PVD

PVP

QTF

RED

S

SG

SUBS

V

VOC



NGR

NIU

PAU

PN

RAP

RAR

SAM

TAH

TAK

TON

TVL


Nugurian (Nuguria Islands – Papua New Guinea)

Niuean (Niue)

Paumotuan (Tuamotu Archipelago – French Polynesia)

Polynesian (recomstructed)

Rapanui (Rapa Nui / Easter Island)

Rarotongan (Rarotonga – Cook Islands)

Samoan (Samoa Islands – Independent State of Samoa and American Samoa)

Tahitian (Society Islands – French Polynesia)

Takuu (Takuu – Papua New Guinea)

Tongan (Kingdom of Tonga)

Tuvaluan (Tuvalu)